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Vocabulary and Grammar Revision for Unit 5 Tiếng Anh 10

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VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR REVISION FOR UNIT 5 TIẾNG ANH 10

UNIT 5. INVENTIONS (Những phát minh)

1. Từ vựng

1. bulky /ˈbʌlki/  (a): to lớn, kềnh càng

2. collapse /kəˈlæps/  (v): xếp lại, cụp lại

3. earbud /ˈɪəbʌd/  (n): tai nghe

4. economical /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪkl/  (a): tiết kiệm, không lãng phí

5. fabric /ˈfæbrɪk/  (n): vải, chất liệu vải

6. generous /ˈdʒenərəs/  (a): rộng rãi, hào phóng

7. headphones /ˈhedfəʊnz/  (n): tai nghe qua đầu

8. imitate /ˈɪmɪteɪt/  (v): bắt chước, mô phỏng theo

9. inspiration /ˌɪnspəˈreɪʃn/  (n): nguồn cảm hứng

10. invention /ɪnˈvenʃn/  (n): sự phát minh, vật phát minh

11. laptop /ˈlæptɒp/  (n): máy tính xách tay

12. patent /ˈpætnt/  (n,v): bằng sáng chế; được cấp bằng sáng chế

13. portable /ˈpɔːtəbl/  (a): dễ dàng mang, xách theo

14. principle /ˈprɪnsəpl/  (n): nguyên tắc, yếu tố cơ bản

15. submarine /ˌsʌbməˈriːn/  (n): tàu ngầm

16. velcro /ˈvelkrəʊ/  (n): một loại khóa dán

2. Ngữ pháp

I. The present perfect (Thì hiện tại hoàn thành)

Thì hiện tại hoàn thành được thành lập bằng cách dùng thì hiện tại đơn của động từ to have kết hợp với quá khứ phân từ (V3).

2.1. Cấu trúc 

a)   Affirmative form (Thể khẳng định)

Subject + have/has + past participle (V3)

Ex: I have seen this film two times. (Tôi đã xem phim đó hai lần.)

b)   Negative form (Thể phủ định)

Subject + have not/has not + past participle (V3)

Ex: I haven’t seen this before. Trước đây tôi chưa thấy qua cái này.

c)   Interrogative form (Thể nghi vấn)

Have/Has + Subject + past participle (V3)?

Ex: Have you met me before? Trước đây bạn có gặp qua tôi chưa?

Cách viết rút gọn: have not —> haven’t; has not —> hasn’t; I have —> I’ve

2.2. Cách dùng

Thì hiện tại hoàn thành được dùng để diễn tả:

a)   Những hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng không xác định rõ thời gian. (Không có từ chỉ thời gian quá khứ.)

Ex: I’ve known you for a long time. Tôi đã biết bạn lâu lắm rồi.

Dùng trong câu có các từ sau: just, recently, lately, already, not ... yet, yet, eve never.

Ex: He has just left home. Anil ta vừa mới ra khỏi nhà.

b) Hành động được lặp đi lặp lại trong quá khứ: many times, several times, twice,...

 Ex: She has failed her driving test three times.

Cô ấy đã trượt thi lái xe ba lần.

c)   Những hành động tồn tại trong quá khứ và tiếp tục kéo dài đến hiện tại.

Các từ nhận biết:

- so far, up to now, up till now, up to the present, still

- for + period of time

- since + a point of time

- the last, it’s the first time

- how long...?

Ex: I have lived in Ho Chi Minh City since 1993. (Tôi đã sống ở Thành phố Iỉồ Chí Minh từ năm 1993.)

She still hasn’t arrived. (Cô ta vẫn chưa đến.)

Lưu ý:

- Since + Noun

Ex: I’ve lived here since 1996. Tôi đã sống ở đó từ năm 1996.

Since last year. Từ năm rồi.

- Since + Clause

Ex: I have taught English at this school since I came here.

Tôi đã dạy tiếng Anh tại trường này từ khi tôi đến đây.

d)   Diễn tả một hành động đã xảy ra hoặc có thể chưa xảy ra tại một thời điểm chưa hoàn tất trong hiện tại

Dấu hiệu: this + time, today, tonight, ...

Ex: Where have you been this morning? Anil đã ở đâu sáng nay?

e)   Sau so sánh nhất.

Ex: She is the most warm-hearted woman that I’ve ever met. (Cô là người phụ nữ tốt bụng nhất mà tôi đã từng gặp.)

f)   Diễn tả một hành động đưa đến một kết quả nào đó trong hiện tại.

Ex: A.You look handsome, Nam. Bạn trông đẹp trai đó Nam.

B: Oh, I’ve just had my hair cut. Ồ, tôi vừa mới cắt tóc.

2.3. Gerund and infinitive (Danh động từ và hình thức nguyên thể của động từ)

Chúng ta có thể sử dụng danh động từ và hình thức nguyên thể của động từ để mô tả mục đích của cái gì đó (thứ gì đó).

*  Infinitive: to V nguyên thể

*  Gerund: for + V-ing

Ex: A ruler is used to draw straight lines. (Cây thước dùng để vẽ những đường thẳng.)

We can use a ruler to draw straight lines. (Chúng ta có thể dùng thước để vẽ những đường thẳng.)

3. Bài tập cơ bản

Exercise 1: Choose the word / phrase CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part

1. The Ig Nobel prize is awarded to good-for-nothing inventions.

A. useless

B. helpful

C. practical

D. applicable

2. I want to buy a printer but I'm afraid it's bulky.

A. small

B. inconvenient

C. expensive

D. big and heavy

3. This device imitates the movements of the mockingbirds.

A. inspires

B. steals

C. mimics

D. contrasts

4. You should store your data on Dropbox in case your computer collapses.

A. breaks down

B. destroys

C. runs out of power

D. contains viruses

5. This technology has some drawbacks that need improving.

A. benefits

B. disadvantages

C. strong points

D. qualities

Exercise 2: Choose the correct answer

1. Retinal implants are meant to partially restore vision to people who have lost their ___________.

A. view

B. scene

C. scenery

D. sight

2. It is thought that Google ______________cars may transform the way we move around cities in the future.

A. driving

B. driver

C. motionless

D. driverless

3. The magnetic compass was first used to determine the correct __________ by the Chinese.

A. way

B. road

C. path

D. direction

4. In less than a decade you will carry a __________ laser pen capable of sealing wounds.

A. readable

B. comfortable

C. portable

D. capable

5. Samsung Galaxy Tab __________ flash player as well as voice and video calls.

A. supports

B. offers

C. displays

D. provides

6. The Tower Infinity in South Korea is supposed to be the world’s first skyscraper that, for a few hours a day, _____________ an unobstructed view of the sky behind it.

A. provides

B. shows

C. allows

D. prevents

7. Kia Silverbrook from Australia invented Memjet, a high-speed __________technology, in 2007.

A. colour-printing

B. colour-print

C. colours printing

D. colour printing

8. 3-D _________ is used to produce complex tools and components.

A. print

B. printing

C. printer

D. blueprint

9. If you have an ___________, you don't have to bring all those heavy books in your bag.

A. correction pen

B. e-book reader

C. earbuds

D. digital camera

10. A _______________ allows us to view and edit photos easily.

A. digital camera

B. correction pen

C. handheld

D. e- book reader

-The end-

ĐÁP ÁN

Exercise 1: Choose the word / phrase CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part

1. A

2. D

3. C

4. A

5. B

Exercise 2: Choose the correct answer

1. D

2. D

3. D

4. C

5. A

6. A

7. D

8. B

9. B

10. A

4. Bài tập nâng cao

Exercise 1: Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined

1. A. smartphone

B. fastener

C. portable

D. costly

2. A. processor

B. congestion

C. tourism

D. assignment

3. A. grammar

B. damage

C. drama

D. mammal

4. A. protection

B. education

C. exception

D. question

5. A. generous

B. velcro

C. video

D. inventor

Exercise 2: Choose the word which has a different stress pattern from the others

1. A. afternoon

B. tomorrow

C. banana

D. umbrella

2. A. government

B. disappoint

C. audience

D. talented

3. A. sorrow

B. passion

C. native

D. complaint

Exercise 3: Choose the best answer A, B, C or D

1. She ____ volleyball at high school but she didn’t like it.

A. has played

B. played

C. was playing

D. has been playing

2. The first actual robot ____ invented in 1961.

A. was

B. has been

C. used to

D. were

3. The magnetic compass was first used to determine the correct _________ by the Chinese.

A. way

B. road

C. path

D. direction

4. Gunpowder was first used to make beautiful displays of ___________ for celebrations in the 9th century by the Chinese.

A. firing

B. fires

C. fireworks

D. firework

5. It is thought that Google _________ cars may transform the way we move around cities in the future.

A. driving

B. driver

C. motionless

D. driverless

6. Shunpei Yamazaki, a Japanese inventor and physicist, invented the thin-film transistor which is a special kind of transistor made by depositing thin films of a ____________ over a piece of glass.

A. semiconductor

B. semiconductors

C. semiconducting

D. conductors

7. 3-D _________ is used to produce complex tools and components.

A. print

B. printing

C. printer

D. blueprint

8. Samsung Galaxy Tab ____________ flash player as well as voice and video calls.

A. supports

B. offers

C. displays

D. provides

9. In less than a decade you will carry a _________ laser pen capable of sealing wounds.

A. readable

B. comfortable

C. portable

D. capable

10. Wearable sensors, such as the Fitbit, Nike FuelBand and Jawbone UP, _______ the most important part of the fitness world for the last few years.

A. become

B. becomes

C. have become

D. has become

Exercise 4: Select the correct verbs to fill the blanks. There are two redundant verbs

to reduce

for studying

to satisfy

for losing

to prevent

for encouraging

to increase

to cover

1. You mustn't use a correction pen ________________ errors in this assignment.

2. Many young people use computers for playing games rather than ____________?

3. Children are vaccinated ___________ certain common children diseases.

4. Doing karaoke is a good way ________________ people's entertainment needs.

5. Don't abuse the use of that medicine _______________ weight.

6. Birth control pill is used by many young women _______________ unwanted pregnancies.

Exercise 5: Choose the word / phrase CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part

1. It's more economical to buy this car than that jet ski.

A. cost-effective

B. expensive

C. insensitive

D. wasteful

2. I want to buy a printer but I'm afraid it's bulky.

A. small

B. inconvenient

C. expensive

D. big and heavy

3. This device imitates the movements of the mockingbirds.

A. inspires

B. steals

C. mimics

D. contrasts

Exercise 6: Complete the sentences using the given words

correction pen

e-book reader

handheld

digital camera

economical

earbuds

1. If you have an _______, you don't have to bring all those heavy books in your bag.

2. Can I use a ___________ to cover errors in my writing?

3. A normal printer is more ___________ than a 3-D printer.

4. You should use this pair of _______________, others won't be able to hear it.

5. A _______________ allows us to view and edit photos easily.

6. Don't worry. This is a __________, so it's quite small and light.

Exercise 7: Give the correct form of the words in CAPITAL to complete the sentences.

1. There is too much _____________ in this movie. (VIOLENT)

2. It is a good book because it is very _________. (INFORM)

3. Third time lucky! After two ___________ attempts, Mark's finally passed his driving test. (SUCCEED)

4. He's so nice. It's a _________ working for him. (PLEASE)

5. Tim is one of the ______________ on a boat trip on Lake Michigan. (PARTICIPATE)

Exercise 8: Read the passage, and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question.

Wi-Fi is a method for devices such as smartphones to connect wirelessly to the Internet using radio waves. Connecting to the Internet using Wi-Fi requires a hotspot, but it is always faster than the 3G cellular networks which smartphones can also use to connect, and occasionally faster than 4G. Using Wi-Fi when it is available can also prove to be cheaper and make your phone run more efficiently in the long run than relying on cellular networks.

When you use a Wi-Fi network to access the Internet from your phone, the data usage does not count against your bundled data. Mobile providers often allocate a certain amount of data for free each month and charge you a fee for any data usage beyond this. By connecting via Wi-Fi wherever it is available, you can save your bundled data for situations when you might not be close to any Wi-Fi hotspots.

In many situations, your speed using a strong, dedicated Wi-Fi connection is faster than that of using your mobile network. It is very noticeable when transferring larger files. If you need to download large files or stream media to your smartphone in a hurry, it is much better to do so via Wi-Fi.

Battery life is extremely important for smartphones because you will not be able to connect to the Internet or use certain functions such as the camera flash if your battery is too low. Using Wi-Fi to connect to the Internet drains less battery life than using a mobile network, especially in situations where the cellular coverage fluctuates. Since Wi-Fi is generally faster than using mobile networks, you will also not spend as much time transferring the data, which further decreases battery usage.

1. The following are the advantages of using Wi-Fi on your smartphone EXCEPT that .

A. it does not need a hotspot to connect all your mobile devices

B. it is faster than the 3G cellular networks

C. it is cheaper than using the 3G networks

D. it makes your phone run more efficiently in the long run

2. By using Wi-Fi, you __________.

A. can use all your bundled data for free

B. can use a certain amount of data for free each month

C. may stay under the data capacity allocated by mobile providers

D. save your bundled data for situations when you use a Wi-Fi network

3. A Wi-Fi connection offers ___________.

A. better large files

B. faster smartphones

C. no need for hurry

D. better speeds

4. Using Wi-Fi offers longer battery life because_________.

A. you will be able to connect to other devices when your battery is low

B. it requires less time with the same task than using mobile networks

C. the Internet harms the battery life so much

D. it requires so little energy while the cellular coverage fluctuates

5. The word “drains” in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to __________.

A. improves

B. saves

C. increases

D. reduces

Exercise 9: Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one.

1. It was easy for us to get tickets for the concert. (NO)

_______________________________________________

2. Jim does not intend to give up his hobby. (INTENTION)

_______________________________________________

3. Scarcely had the man left when the bomb exploded. (NO SOONER)

_______________________________________________

4. The government will introduce new measures against crime next year.

_______________________________________________

5. I don't think he cares about his employees.

_______________________________________________

-The end-

ĐÁP ÁN

Exercise 1: Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined

1. B

2. C

3. C

4. D

5. C

Exercise 2: Choose the word which has a different stress pattern from the others

1. A

2. B

3. D

Exercise 3: Choose the best answer A, B, C or D

1. B

2. A

3. D

4. C

5. D

6. A

7. B

8. A

9. C

10. C

Exercise 4: Select the correct verbs to fill the blanks. There are two redundant verbs

1. You mustn't use a correction pen ________to cover________ errors in this assignment.

2. Many young people use computers for playing games rather than ______ for studying ______?

3. Children are vaccinated ______ to prevent _____ certain common children diseases.

4. Doing karaoke is a good way __________ to satisfy ______ people's entertainment needs.

5. Don't abuse the use of that medicine ________ for losing _______ weight.

6. Birth control pill is used by many young women ________ to reduce _______ unwanted pregnancies.

Exercise 5: Choose the word / phrase CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part

1. A

2. D

3. C

Exercise 6: Complete the sentences using the given words

1. If you have an ___ e-book reader ____, you don't have to bring all those heavy books in your bag.

2. Can I use a _____ correction pen ______ to cover errors in my writing?

3. A normal printer is more ______ economical _____ than a 3-D printer.

4. You should use this pair of _______ earbuds ________, others won't be able to hear it.

5. A ______ digital camera _________ allows us to view and edit photos easily.

6. Don't worry. This is a _____ handheld _____, so it's quite small and light.

Exercise 7: Give the correct form of the words in CAPITAL to complete the sentences.

1.There is too much ______violence_______ in this movie. (VIOLENT)

2.It is a good book because it is very _____informative____. (INFORM)

3.Third time lucky! After two _____unsuccessful______ attempts, Mark's finally passed his driving test. (SUCCEED)

4.He's so nice. It's a ____pleasure_____ working for him. (PLEASE)

5.Tim is one of the _______participants_______ on a boat trip on Lake Michigan. (PARTICIPATE)

Exercise 8: Read the passage, and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question.

1. A

2. C

3. D

4. B

5. D

Exercise 9: Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one.

1. We had no difficulty (in) getting tickets for the concert.

2. Jim has no intention of giving up his hobby.

3. No sooner had the man left than the bomb exploded.

4. New measures again crime will be introduced by the government next year.

5. At no time do I think he cares about his employees.

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